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A general history of the world
Thema: A general history of the world
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A general history of the world
Europeanization involves more than political domination or cultural penetration It also includes physical biological substitution the physical replacement of one people by another which has occurred in more sparsely populated areas of the Western Hemisphere Alumina Ceramic C795 and the South Pacific The sparsely populated indigenous people were either wiped out or driven out and millions of European immigrants with their political systems livelihood methods and cultural traditions swarmed in and occupied their territory Therefore the ethnic Europeanization of overseas regions is bound to be accompanied by political economic and cultural Europeanization The reason why Europe was able to provide so many immigrants in the early days and why millions of people were willing to leave their ancestral homes and risk unknown dangers in distant continents has been described in an earlier chapter Europe's long narrow strip of colonies which began in 1763 had expanded to cover entire continents including Australia and New Zealand by 1914 both of which had not been visited earlier 。 Table 1 Ethnic distribution in North and South America (millions) White black Indian 1835 1935 1835 1935 1935 North America 138 1243 26 124 18 Central America 19 69 27 84 214 South America 29 409 45 187 292 Total 186 1721 98 395 524 Table 1-3 shows that the vast majority of European immigrants went to North and South America This is understandable given that the first European colonies were established in the Americas and that both continents also provided far more abundant natural resources and economic opportunities However since the earliest European colonies appeared in Central and South America it is surprising that a large number of these immigrants have settled in North America This is illustrated by the very different characteristics of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies from those of the British colonies

The Spanish and the Portuguese colonized areas with a high Indian population Although estimates of the number of American Indians before the European invasion vary widely there is a consensus that the Indians were concentrated in what is called Latin America These indigenous peoples provided all the labor needed so the European settlers were no longer required to work As a result Ozone generator ceramic plate most of the immigrants to the Spanish and Portuguese American colonies were soldiers priests government officials and a few necessary craftsmen On the contrary the Indians north of the Laurente River were relatively rare and could not provide labor resources Therefore the British on the Atlantic coast and the French on the banks of the St Lawrence River had to go their own way whether they were cutting down forests cultivating cultivated land or fishing in coastal waters In this case North America needed all the settlers it could get and for this reason the British colonies in North America were open to immigrants of all races languages and beliefs By 1835 there were only 48 million European settlers in Central and South America compared with 138 million in North America Migration in the 19th century The second half of the 19th century European immigration increased reaching a peak between 1900 and 1910; during the decade almost a million people moved each year This unprecedented flow of people reached every continent and as a result although North America was still the main recipient of immigrants Australia South Africa and South America were also settled by a considerable number of Europeans at this time As far as the specific sources of immigration are concerned (see the tables in chapter XI section VII) immigration to Latin American countries was as one would expect mainly from the Iberian Peninsula although there was also a large number of immigrants from Italy and Germany in the late nineteenth century Before 1890 the vast majority of immigrants in North America came from Northwest Europe; after 1890 only about one-third of immigrants came from Northwest Europe while the remaining two-thirds came from Eastern and Southern Europe As for the British Dominions the source of immigration was restricted mainly from the British Isles However after the First World War the Dominion relaxed its immigration policy in order to allow more people to enter these vast areas

Australians are particularly sensitive to their relative lack of population because ceramic sandblasting nozzles of the density of nearby Asian countries and white South Africans are equally concerned about the predominance of blacks in South Africa Ethnically the end result of these migrations was the ethnically Europeanization of North and South America and the British dominions The populations of these regions have become predominantly European although there are some important exceptions such as the continued predominance of indigenous Indians in Central America (58% of the total population) and the one-third Indian population in South America The large number of blacks transported into the Americas as a result of the slave trade was another exception to the Europeanization of the race; it is estimated that nearly 10 million slaves survived the voyage across the Atlantic to reach the New World Today their descendants account for about 10% of the total population in North America 30% in Central America and 21% in South America South Africa is the third exception to racialization; here indigenous Africans outnumber whites (whether of Boer or English descent) by more than three to one global-ceramicsPresseportal
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